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In this new examine of artwork in fin-de-siècle Hamburg, Carolyn Kay examines the profession of the city's paintings gallery director, Alfred Lichtwark, one among Imperial Germany's so much influential museum administrators and a well known cultural critic. A champion of contemporary paintings, Lichtwark stirred controversy one of the city's bourgeoisie by means of commissioning modern German work for the Kunsthalle through secession artists and helping the formation of an self reliant artwork circulate in Hamburg stimulated via French impressionism. Drawing on an intensive quantity of archival learn, and mixing either ancient and artwork ancient ways, Kay examines Lichtwark's cultural politics, their impression at the Hamburg bourgeoisie, and the following alterations to the cultural scene in Hamburg.

Kay focuses her examine on sleek artwork scandals in Hamburg and indicates that Lichtwark confronted robust public resistance within the Nineties, successful major aid from the city's bourgeoisie simply after 1900. Lichtwark's fight to realize popularity for impressionism highlights conflicts in the city's heart classification as to what constituted applicable types and matters of German artwork, with competition teams difficult a conventional and 'pure' German tradition. the writer additionally considers who in the Hamburg bourgeoisie supported Lichtwark, and why. Kay's neighborhood examine of the controversy over cultural modernism in Imperial Germany makes an important contribution either to the learn of modernism and to the historical past of German culture.

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Fifty one Lichtwark, Briefe an seine Familie, 65-8. fifty two Letter of one could 1910, in Lichtwark, Briefe an Max Liebermann, ed. Carl Schellenberg (Hamburg, 1947), 246-7. fifty three Quoted in Zeromski, Alfred Lichtwark, 156. fifty four Pauli, Briefe, 23. fifty five See Lichtwark's letter of 24 Nov. 1906, within the Briefe an Kalckreuth, 190-2. fifty six Letter of one March 1910, ibid. , 241. fifty seven Zeromski, Alfred Lichtwark, 122. fifty eight Max Liebermann gave this identify to Lichtwark: see the item 'Max Liebermanns Nachruf fur Alfred Lichtwark,' within the Hamburger Nachrichten, 30 Jan. 1914. fifty nine See Marcks, Alfred Lichtwark und sein Lebenswerk. 60 Lichtwark, Briefe an die fee, vol. three (Hamburg, 1896), 12. sixty one Lichtwark wrote a piece of writing for the respectable catalogue of the German exhibition on the World's reasonable, within which he argued that nineteenth-century German paintings didn't determine a enough connection 'to the lifetime of the foremost classification of the inhabitants, the bourgeoisie. ' The German exhibition featured cutting edge examples of expertise and utilized arts, however the work proven have been particularly unremarkable. traditional works predominated, in particular images via Franz von Lenbach (who was once the artist in control of the installation). The French, by contrast, provided a room of Manet's paintings, thereby celebrating the trendy. See the item by means of Francoise Forster-Hahn, 'Constructing New Histories: Nationalism and Modernity within the show of Art,' in Forster-Hahn, ed. , Imagining sleek German tradition, 71-86. 128 Notes to pages 23-5 sixty two Letter written from Paris, 17 Oct. 1900, in Lichtwark, Briefe an die fee, vol. eight (Hamburg, 1901), 219. sixty three Lichtwark, Der Deutsche der Zukunft, nine. sixty four Ibid. , 24-5. sixty five The quote in regards to the barbarians within the east, at the beginning of this bankruptcy, provides a superb indication of Lichtwark's worry of Russia. additionally, in July 1892 he heard a few 'Patriotic convention' in Paris, prepared by way of the Catholic church for sufferers of a Russian famine. He wrote to the fee: 'The Vatican and Russia as associates of France, of the Republic; that may be a poor fin de siecle. ' See the letter from Brussels, 14 July 1892, Briefe an die fee, 1:194-5. sixty six This aspect is emphasised in just a couple of analyses of Lichtwark. the main convincing argument, to my brain, is out there by means of Erich Marcks in his Alfred Lichtwark und sein Lebenswerk. yet a few fascinating reviews approximately Lichtwark's nationalism also are provided via the historian Klaus von See, in his Die Ideen von 1789 und die Ideen von 1914: Volkisches Denken in Deutschland zwischen Franzosischer Revolution und Erstem Weltkrieg (Frankfurt am major, 1975), 103-7. See additionally Birgit-Katharine Seemann, Stadt, Burgertum und Kultur: Kulturelle Entwicklung und Kulturpolitik in Hamburg von 1839 bis 1933 am Beispiel des Museumswesens (Husum, 1998), 139. She describes Lichtwark as a 'convinced nationalist. ' Hans Praffcke, in Der Kunstbegrijf Alfred Lichtwarks (Hildesheim, 1986), 167-83 and Edgar Beckers, in Das Beispiel Alfred Lichtwark: Eine Studie zum Selbstverstandnis der Reformpadagogik (diss. Universitat Koln 1976), 108-9, position much less emphasis upon Lichtwark's nationalism, seeing this as subservient to his commitment to German tradition.

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